Handbook of Avian Hybrids of the World

Handbook of Avian Hybrids of the World
EUGENE M. McCARTHY

Handbook of Avian Hybrids of the World attempts to list all avian crosses reported in the scientific literature and/or on the Internet (the vast majority of the documentation is of the former type). Quite a few personal communications are also
included. It is the broadest survey of its kind to date, listing not only crosses occurring under natural conditions, but also those obtained in captivity. No general reference on this subject has been published in English since 1958 (A. P. Gray’s Bird Hybrids). Since that time, interest in avian hybridization has been steadily rising, especially with regard to the fields of taxonomy, conservation, and evolutionary biology. In recent years, reports of hybrids have been far more frequent than in the past (Randler 1998). The increase is probably due to a large rise in the number of field observers, better optical equipment, and an enhanced awareness of the existence of avian hybrids. Unusual hybrids are now often prominently featured in birding magazines and are puzzled over by birders in chat rooms on the Internet.

Gray’s book continues to be cited, but mostly for lack of anything more up-to-date. There has been a need for a new reference that takes into account the last half century of data. Moreover, although often cited by academics, Gray’s book has a decidedly utilitarian perspective, slanted toward the concerns of the breeder rather than the professional biologist. A more recent work on the topic, written for biologists rather than breeders, is E. N. Panov’s Natural Hybridization and Ethological Isolation in Birds (1989). It is also widely cited, but is still 17 years out of date,
written in Russian, and covers only natural hybrids. Data on hybrids produced in captivity can also be important to naturalists. Crosses produced in aviaries often allow identification of specimens obtained in the wild. This book represents an effort to fill these gaps in the literature.

Click HERE to access the book as a PDF.
http://lib.hcmup.edu.vn:8080/eFileMgr/efile_folder/efile_local_folder/2013/12/2013-12-13/tvefile.2013-12-13.2438792827.pdf

European Food Safety Authority — Safety and efficacy of Panaferd-AX (red carotenoid-rich bacterium Paracoccus carotinifaciens) as feed additive for salmon and trout

Safety and efficacy of Panaferd-AX (red carotenoid-rich bacterium
Paracoccus carotinifaciens) as feed additive for salmon and trout1
Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed

(Question No EFSA-Q-2006-173)
Adopted on 18 September 2007

PANEL MEMBERS
Georges Bories, Paul Brantom, Joaquim Brufau de Barberà, Andrew Chesson, Pier Sandro Cocconcelli, Bogdan Debski, Noël Dierick, Anders Franklin, Jürgen Gropp, Ingrid Halle, Christer Hogstrand, Joop de Knecht, Lubomir Leng, Anne-Katrine Lundebye Haldorsen, Alberto Mantovani, Miklós Mézes, Carlo Nebbia, Walter Rambeck, Guido Rychen, Atte von Wright and Pieter Wester

SUMMARY
Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the safety and efficacy of Panaferd-AX. The product is a feed additive consisting of dried sterilised cells of a red carotenoid-rich bacterium (Paracoccus carotinifaciens) intended to provide farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with a source
of astaxanthin which confers the characteristic red colour to the flesh. Panaferd-AX contains around 4 % total red carotenoids, predominantly astaxanthin (2.2 %), adonirubin (1.3 %) and
canthaxanthin (0.4 %).

In salmon and rainbow trout astaxanthin, deposition in flesh from Panaferd-AX was less efficient than that from synthetic astaxanthin. However, equal astaxanthin doses from both sources resulted in a comparable flesh pigmentation in the dose range of 20 to 100 mg astaxanthin kg-1 feed, due to the contribution of the other red carotenoids, mainly adonirubin and canthaxanthin, which are also demonstrated to be deposited in fish flesh. The technological
and organoleptic properties of flesh from Panaferd-AX-treated fish were not different from those treated with synthetic astaxanthin.
Panaferd-AX, at dietary incorporation rate of 12.5-fold greater than the proposed maximum incorporation rate (0.4 %) is safe for salmonids (trout and salmon). Paracoccus carotinifaciens is not a known pathogen, and no other concerns have been identified either in the limited literature available or in the data submitted in the dossier.
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Click HERE to download the report as a PDF.
http://www.efsa.europa.eu/sites/default/files/scientific_output/files/main_documents/feedap_op_ej546_panaferdax_slm_tt_en,3.pdf