Avian Genetics


Mutation has been defined as “a heritable change in the base sequence sequence of a cistron.” These disrupted base sequences are caused by mistakes in DNA replication. Due to the structure of the DNA molecule, and due to proofreading by repair enzymes, such errors are very rare. Mutation may occur at a universal rate of 1 X 10-7 per base pair per generation under normal conditions. Certain chemicals, radiation, and even high temperatures, can contribute to an increase in the probability of such mistakes.

At the chromosome level, little is known concerning the mechanics of mutation with respect to cage birds. For the avian practitioner, such knowledge would be desirable but is not needed. Mutations of the feather colors and the feather structure can be classified into a relatively small number of categories. An understanding of the different types of mutations will allow the discerning eye to judge whether a true breeding strain can be developed from an unusual individual. This understanding of mutation will also enable the avian practitioner to separate birds with pathological metabolic disorders and “artificial mutations” from actual mutations.

As in any form of domestication, mutations are of central importance to aviculture. Even initial captive breedings may be as much a matter of the selection of suitable pairs as of husbandry. As soon as such a first breeding has been accomplished, the aviculturist strives to produce superior or novel strains. Superior may mean freer breeding, steadier, resistant to disease, or able to withstand extremes of climactic conditions. Novelties are selected most often on the basis of size, feather color, and feather structure.

Mutations are also valuable in the monetary sense. About ten years ago years ago a lutino Peach Faced Love Bird(Agapornis roseicollis) sold for one thousand dollars. Such examples of high prices could be listed for any of the early mutations of exotic birds. Such mutations create, albeit temporarily, a gold rush atmosphere. The price of even the most drab and common colors goes up, since interest in and market consumption of the species increases. Many more people start to keep and breed birds of all types. Thus it can be seen that mutations serve both to create, improve, and vary captive strains and to promote aviculture.

The genetics of the mutations in aviculture are relatively simple. A review of basic genetics will now be given. The patterns of inheritance that are most important to the production of cage birds will of course be stressed.

Simple, autosomal, recessives are the largest class of mutations of exotic birds. It is possible for such recessive traits to be present in a proportion of the wild population as heterozygotes. Such heterozygotes exhibit the normal phenotype. The mutant phenotype of autosomal recessives manifests itself only in the homozygote. Any regime of inbreeding will quickly bring such mutations to the surface. As soon as any species becomes established in captivity, such factors are discovered.

This is the most likely explanation behind the phenomenon noted by Darwin that domestication seems to induce variation. Domestication does not increase the rate of mutation, but it does increase the probability of the production of homozygotes. Also such mutant phenotypes that might be culled by natural selection will be favored by artificial selection.

The autosomal recessive traits are denoted by lower case symbols. The corresponding normal, wild gene is given by a plus sign, +.

As a practical matter such mutations may be discovered by inbreeding. This system is exploited by Dutch breeders of Australian Parakeets. These clever fanciers seem to turn out mutations on an assembly line basis.

Dominant autosomal mutations are less common in aviculture. If the dominant mutated individual appears in captivity from normal parents, the mutation must have occurred in the germ cells of the parents. The extremely low rate of mutation explains the paucity of such traits.

Dominant genes are of two types:complete and incomplete. Complete dominance allows heterozygotes to express the full mutant phenotype. With incomplete dominance, heterozygotes show a compromise between the normal and the mutant phenotypes.

The manifestation of the dominant genes is affected by the phenomena of penetrance and expressivity. Penetrance is defined as “The percentage of individuals that, carrying a gene in proper combination for its expression, actually express that genes phenotype.” Expressivity is defined as “the manner in which phenotype is expressed.” These terms clearly describe two aspects of the same situation. Penetrance refers to the clear cut, discrete, cases where a given trait is or is not expressed. Expressivty refers to the full range, continuous cases, of intermediate examples.

Another way of looking at this would to be consider the dominant trait as not fully suppressing the recessive trait. This may be noted in the clear dominant white mutation of the canary(Serinus canarius). Rarely this mutation shows only the faintest hints of lipochrome in the wings. More often they will have well defined bars of lipochrome color. At the other end of the spectrum, some show a red or yellow suffusion throughout the entire plumage.

Expressivity is almost certainly due to the action of modifiers. Without controlled experiments we are not able to simply discount environmental influences. Modifiers are secondary genes that mold the phenotype. “Even when only one principal gene is involved, its expression is influenced by some extent by countless other genes with individual effects often so slight that they are very difficult to localize and analyze.” Thus modifiers are by definition a multiple allele phenomena.

Even though multiple alleles may not be analyzed by simple Punnet squares, we, as aviculturists, can still control them. Simply and drastically, we can cull out any bird that we deem undesirable. More subtly we can utilize as stock birds specimens that are extreme examples of the expression of a trait. By blending these together, we hope to take a middle path and so obtain a few outstanding birds.

The symbol for dominant genes is a capital letter. The corresponding wild, normal allele is again given by a plus sign.

Sex linkage is a very important pattern of inheritance in aviculture. The sex chromosomes are of two types:X and Y. The X chromosome is relatively large and contains many genes. The Y chromosome is much smaller and, in the case of cage birds, no traits are known to be located on it. Male birds have X chromosomes in pairs. In females, the sex chromosome pair consists of one X and one Y. The X chromosome is sometimes designated as Z and the Y as W. The Z-W notation is used in most genetic literature to signify the difference between birds and mammals. The sex linkage system in mammals is the inverse of that in birds. Avicultural literature universally uses the X-Y notation.

All sex linked mutations so far described in exotic cage birds are recessive. One reason for this, as for autosomal recessives, such sex linked recessives can build up hidden in the wild gene pool. Dominant sex linked traits are certainly possible, in fact, Levi describes many common ones in the domestic Pigeon(Columba livia domestica).

For the male bird to exhibit a sex linked recessive phenotype, he must posses to such factors, be homozygous for the mutant gene. A hen will exhibit the mutant gene with only one factor. This is explained by the fact that the X chromosome has no corresponding allele on the Y chromosome to dominate the normally recessive mutation. Such hens are called hemizygous. Some traits seem to act differently in the homozygous and the hemizygous configurations. Two examples are the Pearl mutation in the Cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) and the Pastel mutation in the Canary (Serinus canarius). More research is needed to confirm these observations. An alternate explanation is a different phenotype is due to hormonal differences.

In some organisms a few genes are located on the Y Chromsome. None have been described for cage birds.

Crossing over and linkage must be taken into consideration when any traits that are to be combined are located on the same chromosome pairs. This is obviously the case for any double mutations involving sex linked traits. This is also true for autosomal chromosome pairs. An example is the traits for blue, s, and the dark factor, D, in the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). The breeder attempting to get a combination of the dark and blue mutations is in for a surprise if he starts by mating an olive, a two factor green bird, with a sky blue. This mating will produce all one dark factor green birds that are heterozygous with respect to, split for, blue. Realizing that blue and the dark factor are autosomal, not sex linked, he computes the expected frequencies of the progeny. Mating a green carrier of blue to a blue bird yields 50% blue and 50% green carriers of blue. Pairing a dark factor bird to a no dark factor bird gives 50% one dark factor birds and 50% normal, no dark factor, birds. By simple multiplication(50% blue X 50% one dark factor), this fancier expects 25% of the young to be cobalts, one dark factor blue birds.

If only a few pairs are being used it is very likely that no cobalts will result. If he manages to breed one hundred young from this sort of pairing, on the average, only seven cobalts will be obtained.

Why is there this gap between theory and practice?

Our fancier assumed segregation of the traits. These genes do not follow Mendel’s law of independent assortment because they are not independent. Both traits, blue and the dark factor, are located on the same chromosome. Genes located on the same chromosome are said to be linked or in linkage.

During prophase 1 of meiosos homologous chromosomes, chromosome pairs, are situated in close proximity to each other. Sometimes points of contact and breakage are formed. These discrete points are visible under magnification and are called chiasma, plural chiasmata. At these points, single strands, chromatids, of each chromosome may break and switch chromosomes. This whole process is known as crossing over. It is through crossing over that linked factors may undergo recombination.

There are two basic plans by which linked traits may become involved in crossing over:in coupling and in repulsion. Genes are linked in coupling when mutant traits are located on the same chromosome. They are linked in repulsion when mutant genes are located on opposing chromosomes. See figures 1 and 2.

Figure 1 s+ /+D

Figure 2 sD/++

Figure 1 symbolizes traits linked in repulsion. In figure two they are in coupling. Linkage in coupling is also known as cis linkage. Linkage in repulsion is also known as trans linkage.

Most avicultural literature, in particular budgerigar literature, refers to linkage in repulsion as type 1 linkage, type 2 designating linkage in coupling. This is an undesirable terminology for several reasons. Firstly, no genetic text books ever use these terms. Secondly, some authors switch type 1 with type 2. They designate type 1 for coupling and type 2 for repulsion. This leads to confusion. Also some authors use type 1 and type 2 to label a host of unrelated concepts:homozygous versus heterozygous, separate forms of the yellow face factor in the budgerigar, and various genotypes of specific phenotype, e.g.the fallow phenotype in the budgerigar. Thus we should follow the example of the geneticists.

The concepts of coupling and of repulsion are of both practical and of theoretical importance. The percentages of the genotypes and the phenotypes produced are most often different, since the percentages of young produced from crossing over is most often different.

This difference may be best observed by the frequencies of young produced from the cross of a one dark factor green budgerigar that is split for blue with a sky blue bird. Both blue and green are autosomal, non sex linked traits. These factors are located on the same chromosome and are thus linked.

The first example will be for in repulsion

D – dark factor
s – blue

olive green + D /+D X s+ /s+ sky blue
The young will all be: + D /s+ Dark green/blue

The symbols graphically represent how the traits, both mutant and normal, are located opposite to each other on the chromosome.

This bird will produce the following gametes:+D, s+, ++, and sD. The last two gametes are due to crossing over. Pairing this bird with a sky blue will give the young described in the accompanying chart. Percentages are according to Hart.

+ D/s+ X s+/s+

+ D /s+ 43% dark green/blue
s+/s+ 43% sky blue
sD/s+ 7% cobalt
+ +/ s+ 7% light green/blue

An alternate method to get a dark green carrier of blue is to mate a mauve, a two dark factor blue budgerigar, with a light green.

mauve sD/sD X + + /++ light green
The young will all have the phenotype of ++/sD

. This is an example of traits in coupling. Though of the same phenotype as the preceding example, the genotype differs by the arrangement of the factors on the chromosomes. The mutant genes are on one chromosome and the normal genes are on the other chromosome of the homologous pair. Pairing this bird with a sky blue gives the same genotypes and phenotypes as the case in repulsion, put the frequencies are modified.

+ + /sD X + s /+s

+ + /+s 43% light green/blue
sD/+s 43% cobalt
s+ /s+ 7% sky blue< br> +D/s+ 7% dark green/blue

Percentages are again according to Hart.

Thus the position of the genes determines the manner in which crossing over occurs. In the first example, linkage in repulsion, the gametes ++ and sD are only obtained through a crossover. This is the explanation for the low frequencies of cobalt and light green/blue young. In the second case, the example of linkage in coupling, the gametes +s and +D are obtained by means of the process of crossing over. Therefore the sky blue and the dark green/blue young are of the lowest frequencies.

The probability of crossing over and the implied frequencies of the progeny may only be inferred from breeding results. The closer the two linked traits are located to each other, the less likely is the chance of breakage and the subsequent crossing over. Genes located at a great distance from each other have a much greater probability of crossing over. This probability is expressed as a percentage and varies from 0% to 50%. At the rate of 0% there is, for all practical purposes, no chance of crossing over. The percentage of 50% implies that, since the chance of breakage and recombination is so high, in practice, the traits may be considered as independent. The probability of crossing over for any two specific traits, as it is a function of the location of the gene locus, is nearly constant. To calculate this probability, the percentage of crossing over may be expressed by the following formula:


No complete chromosome maps have been constructed for any exotic birds. There are many problems concerning the formulation of such maps in birds. All birds have microchromosomes. These microchromosomes are extremely small, less than one micron in diameter. Even under magnification these are very small, in fact dot like, and hard to distinguish. Because of the difficulty of viewing these structures, the exact counts of even the well researched species is not known. The accepted counts of the domestic pigeon(Coloumba livia domestica), the budgerigar(Melopsittacus undulatus), and the canary(Serinus canarius) are + _80, + _58, and + _80 respectively. The plus or minus notation is used to stress that the exact count is not known. For the majority of cage birds, no attempt at a karyotype has been made. Very few traits have been documented in ornamental birds. Once we possess a more comprehensive understanding of the genetics of avicultural subjects, we will be in a position to deductively construct chromosome maps.

We all learned as children that the whole equals the sum of the parts. This very basic mathematical concept is so obvious that we accept it as common sense. Common sense does not carry much weight in genetics. Here the whole, the phenotype, might be more or less than the sum of the parts, the genotype.

The most important form of genetic interaction is epistasis. Epistasis is defined as “the suppression of the expression of a gene or genes by other genes not allelic to the genes suppressed. Similar to dominance but involving the interaction of non-allelic genes.” Epistasis is sometimes referred to as genetic masking for it may disguise or camouflage the genotype. Epistasis implies hypostasis in the same way that dominant implies recessive. The gene that is doing the masking is said to be epistatic to the other trait. The trait that is being masked is said to be hypostatic to the first factor.

Related to the concept of epistasis is the phenomenon of complementary genes. With complementary genes two or more traits must all be present, in the proper dosages, for a given phenotype to be expressed. The crest factor in the budgerigar is a perfect example.

Lethal traits so disrupt the metabolism that they cause the death of the individual. Dominant lethals are clearly self deleting. Recessive and incomplete dominant genes are perpetuated. In cage birds, very few lethal traits have been posited:the crest, hard feather, and dominant white traits in the canary. These traits are all incomplete dominants. In one factor, in the heterozygous state, these genes produce an unusual phenotype, desirable to the fancier. In two factors, in the homozygous configuration, they cause death. Penetrance and expressivty may also come into play.

Mutations, though often of an essentially simple genetic nature, tend to become confused in aviculture. Unusual specimens fetch high prices and bring prestige to their owners. This fact generates one of two responses from the person lucky enough to spot something different in the nest or in a consignment of wild caught birds. The egotistical fancier informs all that he possesses a new variety. The aviculturist more noted for business acumen will keep his new type a secret and build up his stock. In this way the market is cornered and a handsome profit may be realized at the time of sale of the novelties. All give poetical and fanciful names to mutations.

On occasion the same mutation arises in two or more locations at about the same time and greatly confuses the issue. Most every country regulates the import and export of birds. In Australia, an important country both ornithologically and aviculturally, trafficking in birds is all but outlawed. It may be years before the proper test matings are performed to determine the true nature of the new mutations. Without test matings, only comparisons from photographs or, even less reliably, from memory can be used. These comparisons, even if perfect pictures are available, are only the roughest of guides. The same mutation may be drastically affected by modifiers or by environmental factors.

Conversely, identical phenotypes may be expressed by completely different mutant genes. For example, there were originally both a sex linked recessive and an autosomal recessive ino factor in the budgerigar. Sadly, the latter has been lost.

The term sport is sometimes used with a wide range of meanings. The broadest definition is of any different and unusual appearance. This would include extremes of phenotype caused by both genetic and non genetic factors. We here restrict the definition to include only oddities that owe their unusual appearance to environmental or to pathological factors. Of course, such phenotypes will not be passed on the future generations.

Sports are not unknown in birds. Many unusual colors are caused by metabolic disorders or by injury to the skin or growing feather. Some very striking color combinations, half siders and other mosaics, though of a genetic nature, are also not inheritable.

Hybrids, inter-specific crosses, are common in aviculture. Mule breeding, the production of mostly sterile hybrids involving the canary and various finches is very popular in Europe. The society finch(Lonchura domestica) is possible a free breeding blend of several Mannikin species. With species of waterfowl, it takes real effort to not get hybrids.

Hybrids are very interesting genetic subjects. Mutant genes have been transferred to the canary and some love birds from closely related species by means of hybrids.

Unfortunately, the haphazard production of hybrids has often become a liability in aviculture For example, it took many years for the American stocks of Love Birds to become sorted out after various species had become mixed up. Sometimes a hybrid might be mistaken for a new species or for a mutation.

At best, the heredity of birds is not easy to study. The shortest generations are several months. Many birds take years to mature. Some species insist on choosing their own mates. Others are difficult to keep alive in captivity, let alone rear. For the altricial species, some are poor parents. In these cases, the breeder must attempt to foster or to hand raise the young. This is not a perfect solution, for imprinting and other unnatural forms of socialization complicate further breeding. Even relatively simple mutations may be lost. The London fancy color variety of the canary was lost through ignorance. At the turn of the century this simple recessive melanin diluting gene was confused with variegation. Through pairings with variegated birds, the rare recessive was lost. We are very lucky that any mutations have been established for the more temperamental species.

The great majority of mutations in aviculture affect the color of the plumage. A basic knowledge of the mechanics of feather color is needed. The appearance of color in the feather is due to two mechanisms:chemical coloration and structural coloration. Biochromes, compounds actually present in the feather, cause chemical coloration. Structural coloration, on the other hand, produces an optical illusion by means of anatomical elements in the feather. These elements might manage to give the appearance of a blend of chemical colors. Orange, red, and yellow are most often caused by carotenoids being deposited in the feather. These compounds are called lipochromes in the avicultural literature. These chemicals are metabolized from plant and animal matter. They are not synthesized by the bird.

Species that possess carotenoid colors will often exhibit variation in color due to changes in the diet. The red of the male Virginia Cardinal(Richmondena cardinalis) fades in the North East United States during the Winter when fruits, berries, greens, insects, and other small animals that are part of the bird’s diet become scarce. The Venezuelan Black Hooded Red Siskin(Carduelis cuccullata) will lose its natural red color, turning yellow, if not offered a source of carotenoids.

Yellow ground birds can obtain a sufficient supply of carotenoids from a diet of seed. This is not true for red or orange ground birds. In captivity the most common practice is to supply these birds with a source of synthetic carotenoids. The most commonly used substances are beta-carotene, apo-carotenol, and canthaxanthin. Canthaxanthin gives the brightest scarlet red. Beta-carotene and apo-carotenol allow the birds to develop golden, orange shades. Beta-carotene is of limited usefulness for much is metabolized as vitamin A, which lacks color, according to Doctor Adams, technical director of Hoffman La Roche. All these chemicals may be used together, for their action is complimentary.

In parrot type birds orange, red, and yellow are probably not caused by carotenoids. George Smith has posited a new class of chemical compounds. He has named these substances psittacins. In parrot types, color is not clearly a function of the diet. Ramon Noegel states that birds raised in captivity do show a greater extent of red and orange color. His believes that this increased degree of color is related to a diet rich in carotenoids. It must be noted that an improperly fed scarlet macaw or chattering lory, or any other scarlet parrot, might be near death from malnutrition, but still have fire engine red plumage

. Unique to touracos, musophagiformes, is green caused by the deposition of a biochrome, turacin, in the feathers. Since there are, to my knowledge, no mutations of touracos in aviculture, all cases of green plumage may be considered as structural colors.

The blacks, browns, and grey colors are from melanin pigments in the feather. These pigments are synthesized by the birds from amino acids. The exact color and shade is due to the size, density, and shape of the melanin granules. Mutations that affect melanin coloration most often affect either the size or density of the granules.

White is a structural color. Here all micro structures in the feather are transparent, including the covering cuticle. Since the whole spectrum of light passes through, our eyes register the color as white. This is seen, literally, in any color less chemical. An single sugar granule is transparent. A teaspoon of sugar is white.

Slate blue, as in the canary, is given by a combination of a transparent cuticle and underlying melanin cells. The transparent cuticle is called white ground in aviculture. The bright blue, as in the blue jay(Cyanocitta cristata) is due to a refractive layer of polyhedral cells situated between a transparent cuticle and a refractive melanin base. A green effect occurs when yellow carotenoids or psittacins are spread through the cuticle. Avicultural writers call this yellow ground. If the carotenoids or psittacins of the cuticle are primarily of a red nature, a red ground bird is the result. If no melanins are present, a red or orange hue is here observed. Red biochromes do not readily interact with melanins to form structural colors. Red is most often obscured by melanin.

Iridescence is given by spectral colors due to light interference. This interference is caused by twisted and broadened, melanin containing, barbules or by spherical granules of melanin in close proximity to the cuticle.

Since feather color is governed by only two phenomena, all color mutations may be divided into two classes:mutations of the biochromes or of the micro structure of the feather.

The most common mutations are of the chemical colors that affect the melanin granules:inos, cinnamons, fallows, pieds, and yellows.

The inos are the most distinctive colors. All the melanin is deleted from the entire bird. Here the ability to synthesize melanin is completely disrupted. A pinkish color is seen in the eyes, beak, skin, and nails. This is actually the red blood circulating below the transparent tissues. Carotenoids or psittacins are not affected. Thus an ino love bird is yellow with red-orange markings. A bird that is of a predominantly white ground is an albino. A yellow one is a lutino. A red orange ground bird is called a rosino. Unfortunately, the term rosino is often misused. The rose bourkes neophema(Neophema bourkii) and the rosino canary are not inos. These mutations do not delete all the melanin. The canary does have a true ino mutation, possibly transferred from the European Greenfinch(Chloris chloris), the satinette variety.

Cinnamon-inos are special cases. Ino mutations do not completely delete brown melanin. Daniels has shown that it is not unusual for birds of this genotype to evince a laced phenotype. This is seen in the brown satinette canary and in one form of the lacewing budgerigar. Similar cinnamon-ino colors are being researched in peach face love birds and the cockatiel.

Many species have patches of different ground colors. The most notable example is the cockatiel. These patches are almost completely hidden by melanin in the normal bird. Once the melanin is removed, the previously hidden psittacin is revealed.

In pieds the melanin mutation is removed in patches. These sections may be almost completely random, like the variegation in the canary, or may be very definite, as is the European clear flight mutation in the budgerigar. Most pieds are neither completely restricted to certain areas, nor are they random. The Australian banded pied mutation in the budgerigar affects mostly the feathers of the lower wings, belly, and tail, often giving a circle or band of clear feathers about the waist. The harlequin mutation of the budgerigar affects mostly the head, upper wings, and chest. The exact delineation of the areas from which melanin will be deleted is random.

Birds may be completely pied. In budgerigars such examples are called black eyed clears. I will use this term for all species. Here all melanin is removed from the skin, nails, beak, and feathers. Melanin is retained in the eyes. Black eyed clears may be obtained from selective breeding of a single pied mutation. For example, in the American pied peach faced love bird light strains exist. These are extremely pied birds that produce a percentage of black eyed clears. Variable penetrance is very common among pied mutations.

Black eyed clears may also result form a combination of distinct pied mutations. The black eyed clear budgerigar is derived from a cross of the European clearflight and the recessive pied. In the canary black eyed clears, most often called simply clears or lipochrome birds, are birds that possess two factors for an incomplete dominant, V, the variegation gene. Individuals of the genotype +/+ are the normal melanin forming birds. Those of the genotype V/+ are variegated, pied.

Cinnamon(brown) and fallow mutations change the shape and size of the melanin granules. The melanin is changed from black to brown and the size of the granules may also be reduced. Cinnamons often have red or plum colored eyes as nestlings and juveniles. In fallows this red eye is retained in the adults.

Strangely enough, despite the profusion of melanin diluting and restricting mutations, traits that increase melanin distribution are very rare in aviculture, at least in the exotic species. The only one is the black breasted zebra finch(Poephila eastanotis). All other black forms have so far proven to be sports.

Yellows result from genes that affect the quantity and distribution of melanin granules. Yellow mutations reduce the amount of melanin in the feather. A lighter, diluted, but not clear appearance is the result. Yellow might not change all the feathers. The clearwing mutation of the budgerigar most effectively reduces the melanin in the wing, but does not reduce the body striations. Yellow type genes can also restrict the melanin distribution to certain parts of the feather or body. The lizard mutation in the canary deletes the melanin only from the edge of the feather, but does not change the granules elsewhere. The terminology yellow is most descriptive in yellow ground birds. In white ground birds the term white may be used, as it is for a budgerigar mutation. It is important to keep in mind that here we are discussing a whole class of melanin affecting mutations.

A few categories of mutations affect the ground colors. As has been explained, the ground colors are due to the presence or absence of carotenoids or psittacins in the plumage. The only true mutations of ground colors are those that reduce or delete the pigment, producing a white ground or, like the ivory factor in the canary, reducing the deep original shade of the ground color.

The deletion of carotenoids or psittacins from the feather is very common. This is seen in the blue canary and the blue budgerigar. The phenotype is blue for the melanins are unaffected by this group of mutations. The combination of this sort of mutation and an ino factor, thus deleting all biochromes, is an albino. Albino double mutations have been produced in the canary, budgerigar, and cockatiel.

At this point a brief digression concerning feather anatomy is appropriate. The central shaft or quill of the feather is called the rachis. The visible rays of the feather that run perpendicular to the rachis are called barbs. Very small, but just visible to the naked eye, are structures called barbules that run perpendicular to the barb. Under magnification, hooklets, or barbicels, may be observed. These hooklets catch adjoining barbules, holding the feather in a continuous sheet. The importance of these hooklets to mutations will soon become apparent.

The ivory factor in the canary is somewhat more interesting and also more complicated. This sex linked recessive manifests itself in a ground color one shade lighter than normal. Yellow ground ivory canaries have the light yellow bone ivory color of old piano keys. Red ground ivories appear rose or pink. This pale ground color occurs because carotenoids are deleted only from the hooklets. The pigmentation in the other parts of the feather is unchanged.

The other traits that are thought to affect the ground color are actually mutations of the structure of the feather.

The most commonly noted change in the feather structure is soft feather or buff. This is seen particularly in canaries, but also in budgerigars. Soft feather birds have defective hooklets on the barbules. The feathers are in this way all slightly raised. With the canary, a white frosting from the defective hooklets may be observed without magnification. This sort of plumage gives the bird a larger appearance. Soft feather reduces the intensity of all colors.

In the budgerigar, the feather duster, an abnormally long feathered bird, thus the name, is said to be a genetic aberration – analogous to Down’s syndrome in the human. Feather dusters generally die soon after leaving the nest.

The dark factor of the budgerigar is due to changes in the feather structure. This gene reduces the layer of cells on the barbs that scatter and reflect light. Due to this less efficient structure, a dark factor budgerigar is of a deeper color. Because the reflecting layer is thinner, more color escapes. This trait reduces the layer of cells by about one third for each dose of the gene present. In a dark green the layer is about two-thirds of normal. In an olive, a two dark factor budgerigar, the layer is about one-third of normal. Similar acting dark factors are seen in the peach faced love bird and in the Indian ringneck parakeet.

The only remaining types of mutations are the long flight in the budgerigar, the frill in the canary, and the crest in the canary, budgerigar, society, and zebra finch. All other mutations of exotic and ornamental birds may be classified according to the previous discussion.

Modifiers are very important in all domesticated species. The very changed size, shape, plumage, and posture of the Norwich, Belgian, Yorkshire, and Scotch Fancy canaries are due to modifiers. Fanciers, through slow, selective breeding and the artful combining of breeds, derived these varieties.

Distinctive strains of may other species exist in aviculture. Some lines of Lady Gouldian finches (Poephila gouldia) are very free breeding but require foster parents to rear the young. The most commonly used foster parents are society finches. Other strains of Gouldians are known to be good parents. Some American fanciers are consistently rearing Lady Gouldians about fifty percent larger than usual, thus creating a modified phenotype. Families of pied peach faced love birds and pied cockatiels that are very light also exist. Primrose, extremely yellow, cockatiels also are available as distinctive strains.

Splashed or variegated birds are the most common sports. These are relatively common in Indian ringneck parakeets(Psittacula krameri manillensis) and budgerigars. Other parrot types sometimes spontaneously develop maroon patches. Some lutino cockatiels suddenly get a deeper yellow color. Black canaries have been produced but have never been reproduced.

No bird should be dismissed as a sport without careful test matings. Any individual that was born with a normal phenotype but develops an unusual color must be suspect. A careful examination by a qualified veterinarian is certainly in order.

Half siders are birds that have a dual phenotype. The plumage, size, color, sometimes even the gender, differs from the left and right sides. It seems as if two halves of different birds have been glued together, which is not far from the truth. Half siders are one facet of the larger phenomenon of mosaicism Mosaics are organisms of patchwork phenotype and/or genotype. In aviculture, half siders are most frequently encountered in budgerigars, though they have been reported in canaries and Lady Gouldians.

Hollander has discussed half siders in many species of birds. Though of a genetic origin, half siders can not be intentionally bred. Half siders are the result of cytological accidents and are the inverse of twins. The half sider phenotype is not inheritable. A strain of half siders can not be developed.

Hybridization can be a valuable technique in aviculture. Fanciers have always delighted in the production of novel forms. The progressive aviculturist uses hybrids to achieve specific results. The red factor canary was produced by a cross of the Venezuelan red hooded siskin (Carduelis cucullata) and the canary. The satinette in the canary, actually an ino factor, as described above, might have been the result of a cross of the canary with the lutino European green finch (Chloris chloris var.) the yellow gene was transferred to the Fischer’s love bird (Agapornis fischerii) from the masked (Agapornis personata).

The haphazard production of hybrids must be descried. The clumsy breeding of mules and intergrades can not be tolerated. All birds used in a hybrid breeding scheme must be closed banded. Closed bands are seamless metal rings. They can only be placed on a young bird within about two weeks after hatching. These bands are coded and allow positive identification. Any birds that can not be identified should be destroyed.

Frauds are not unknown in aviculture. South American Indians have many techniques for treating the growing feathers of parrots to get bizarre and beautiful colors. Dyed finches are seen in quarantine stations. The most common fraud is the “double yellow head” conure. The cheap green conure becomes an expensive peroxide blond and is passed off the unsuspecting Yankee tourist as a juvenile Mexican double yellow head Amazon parrot. Similar combinations of dyes and bleaches must always be looked out for upon the announcement of any new and high priced mutation.

A more subtle form of deception also takes place. Many mutations in aviculture are sex linked recessives. Clearly, hens can not be split for these traits. Sometimes the developer of such a trait reports the mutation to be an autosomal recessive. This way he can sell normal hens as high priced splits. This occurred with the rosy variety of the Bourke’s neophema.


This paper shows that the overwhelming majority of mutations in aviculture can be broken down into a limited number of patterns, in all species of birds. The underlying genetic phenomena show an amazing degree of similarity.

All bird breeders must be extremely selective. In all probability, many species will soon become extinct as viable wild populations. The only hope for these birds is aviculture. We must decide what sort of population or populations that we want to maintain. If the hope is for eventual re-introduction, the wild type, both in appearance and in behavior must be used as a model and as an ideal. Some feel that the wild type is superior on strictly aesthetic grounds. I hope that the normal type of most captive birds will not be lost. I see no reason why different breeds, as have been produced in all domestic plants and animals, should not be developed. Selection can not be held in abeyance. It can be either used to improve and vary a species, or ignored with penalty.

Most every country regulates the import and export of birds. This will greatly affect the ability of aviculturists to work with wild species. It will also become increasingly difficult to make test matings between mutations occurring in different parts of the world and to thus determine if two birds of similar description are the same or different mutations.

We pontificate concerning the uninformed and poverty stricken third world peoples that catch and sell wild birds. The Western aviculturist is noted for his pious sermons of “saving from extinction.” Unfortunately all too few breeders of the larger parrots deserve to be called aviculturists. Instead of developing any captive strains – despite their knowledge of the reality of rain forest destruction and their relative degree of financial comfort – they sell all the young parrots produced as pets. I hope that there is a special place in hell for these hypocrites. Perhaps a waste land that was once a rain forest?

Anom., 1981, MOULT AND FEATHER COLOR, Bird World, Aug-Sept

Daniels, Trevor, 1981, UNDERSTANDING CINNAMON INOS, Cage and Aviary Birds, Jan. 17

Darwin Charles, 1872, THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES, 1958 ed., The New American Library, NY, NY

Hart, 1978, BUDGERIGAR HANDBOOK, TFH Publications, Neptune, NJ

Hollander, W.F., 1944, MOSAIC EFFECTS IN DOMESTIC BIRDS, Quarterly Review of Biology,19:285-307

Keeton, W.T., 1980, BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE, W.W. Norton, NY, NY

Levi, THE PIGEON, Levi publishing


Ohno, S., 1970, EVOLUTION BY GENE DUPLICATION, Springer-Verlag, NY

Smith, G.A., 1980, MUTATION COLOURS IN PARROTS, The Magazine of the Parrot Society, vol XIV, #9, Sept. Nov, 220-222

Smith, G.A., 1981, COLOUR MUTATIONS, The Magazine of the Parrot Society, vol. XV, #11, Nov., 307-310


Raising Fruit Flies for Food

To anoles, young pantodon bucholzi, tree frogs, red efts etc!

Fruit Flies (Drosophila sp.) Are a valuable food for many birds, fish, and herptiles. It is easy to raise these insects.

In an outdoor aviary you can take a bucket and throw in several pieces of rotting fruit. It is important that the fruit has gone bad, for Drosophila can’t colonize fresh produce. The container must be covered with quarter inch wire mesh. This size lets the flies in to breed and the progeny out for the birds to eat. The screen keeps the birds out of the foul mash. If the birds get at the mess they will certainly soil their plumage and possibly consume the tainted fruit with no good result. As long as the air temperature is generally above sixty degrees, wild fruit flies will soon appear. The culture will yield a steady supply of flies. This will provide as much psychological as nutritional benefit. Your birds will occupy themselves by hunting for the insects, as they would in the wild.

You can also culture fruit flies indoors. Mix one tablespoon of sugar with one cup of dried instant mashed potatoes, available from any supermarket. Add one inch of this blend to a wide mouth jar. Pour in water to the same level as the potato-sugar. Sprinkle a pinch of dried yeast on the surface of the mash. The jars must be very clean, preferably sterile, or you will be culturing a host of molds, instead of fruit flies! Cover the tops with a piece of paper toweling held in place by a rubber band.

Your best bet is to obtain a culture of WINGLESS Drosophila. Make sure you get the WINGLESS and not the VESTIGAL WINGED, for the latter will produce normal phenotype WINGED progeny under various environmental conditions. The WINGLESS fruit flies are easier for your pets to catch and are very convenient to transfer from culture to culture. With the WINGLESS flies you just tap the jar until they fall to the bottom and then pour them into new media. With WINGED you have to knock them out with ether or deal with them flying all over the place. Also, if the Fruit Flies escape, the WINGLESS won’t get very far. NORMAL fruit flies will wind up all over the house!

Many suggest placing some sort of stiff plastic in the jar as a roost for the flies and as a surface for the larvae to pupate on. I’ve found this to be unnecessary and an added complication when harvesting. The adults and larvae just use the sides of the jar.

WINGLESS Drosphila starter cultures are available from fish club members, friends at High Schools and Colleges, and by mail order from companies listed in aquarium magazines. Biological supply houses also sell them, but are generally very expensive.

For fish, just pour a quantity of the adults on the surface of the water. With herptiles you can also release a number of the flies as a meal. It is also possible, in a glass covered terrarium, to place a screen over the culture. This way, the flies will just crawl out and get caught.


More Than 600 Varieties of Aquarium Pygmies Afford a Fascinating Field for Zoological Study in the Home

By Ida Mellen

This article was originally published in the National Geographic Magazine of March 1931 and is presented for historical interest!

It would be interesting to know in what country little fishes were first placed in glass receptacles for purposes of esthetic enjoyment. Rumor names Egypt; but, although the fresh waters of Egypt are replete with curious and beautiful dwarf fishes and the Egyptians developed the art of glass blowing during the Ptolemaic and Roman periods, after 300 B.C., there is no evidence that vessels of glass were used for aquaria.

The question can not be resolved with certainty, but it is well known that the lure of breeding fish in captivity took possession of the Chinese several hundred years ago, spreading to Japan, and thence over the Western World, with the goldfish as the original object of interest. During the past 75 years experimentation with the balanced aquarium has passed through various salt and fresh-water phases until, with tropical toy fishes, it has reached the peak of enthusiasm and success in Europe and America. ( See, also, “Goldfish and Their Cultivation in America,” by Hugh M. Smith, in the National Geographic Magazine for October, 1924)

Not that the goldfish has suffered a loss of popularity. Seventeen million are still reared annually in the Untied States, largely for martyrdom in the quart globe, and there is little diminution in the demand for bizarre and costly varieties. Among cold-water species it has no rivals.

Nevertheless, tropical fishes have superseded goldfishes in many of the smaller hatcheries, and some of the larger goldfish farms have built conservatories for rearing them.


Many shops in the larger cities are devoted exclusively to their sale, and a pet show without a display of these colorful midgets would be noticeable incomplete. But it is true, also, that, while most American and European homes have been ornamented at some time by the presence of a few goldfishes, the majority have not as yet succumbed to the allurements of the toy tropical, though fish “fans” spring up daily like mushrooms, enticed by the flash of color, the beauty of fin and form, the remarkable breeding habits undisturbed by captivity, and the ease with which the aquaria are maintained.

Many kinds imported into the United States are sold and shipped almost the length and breadth of North America – from Florida to Canada and from Massachusetts to California – but hundreds equally beautiful and interesting are as yet unknown to the fancier. The accompanying color plates present more than thirty kinds maintained in American aquaria, three-fourths of which have been bred in captivity.


The happy hunting grounds for toy fishes, explored and unexplored, range in the Western Hemisphere from the Carolinas south through Florida, and from Mexico through Central America, Panama, and South America to the most southern point of Argentina. In the Eastern Hemisphere, Egypt and other parts of Africa, Australia and Asia – including the island groups of the Malay Archipelago, India, China, Siam, and other countries – have been drawn upon for the supply of dwarf fishes appearing in the home aquaria of the Occident.

Tropical toy fishes are of many genera and species and even of many varieties – some natural, others cultivated. Their adult body length measures from one inch to five inches, the most minute of all not yet having been exported alive. These are four Philippine fresh-water gobies from Manila, Lake Buhi, Laguna de Bay, and Sitankai, in the Sulu Province, two of which reach a maximum length of one-quarter inch and two one-half inch.


The impossibility of transporting alive these smallest of all known vertebrates has precluded Occidentals, both laymen and scientists, from the enjoyment of one of the world’s greatest biological curiosities, the only specimen’s received having been forwarded in preserving solution; and the principal use to which the Filipinos put these tine creatures at present is a culinary one, many thousands being mixed with batter and baked into little cakes seasoned with herbs and spices.

From this we conclude that in flavor, as well as in nature and habit, dwarf fishes are not unlike their brothers of larger growth; but from the aquarist’s point of view they are separated into three diverse groups; the peaceable and the quarrelsome, the carnivorous and the omnivorous (few, if any, being wholly herbivorous), the oviparous and the viviparous (those laying eggs and those bearing living young and called “live-bearers:).

Subdivisions follow, such as delicate and hardy, prolific and unprolific, alkaline- and acid water species, and so on – details which may seem ponderous, but which the merest amateur masters quickly. The ichthyologist, on the other hand, recognizes the pygmies as belonging to definite species, genera, families, and orders, similar to fishes of normal size, and gives them Latin names (sometimes much longer than the little fishes themselves), which will identify them in any country of the world, for science speaks a universal tongue. The scientific nomenclature is known also to the fish fancier and even to the lad with his first pair of guppies.

Nor is the anatomy of the pygmies unique. Swim bladders and other organs common to larger fishes are common to them, and their fins are the same – caudal or tail, fins for swimming or propelling, fins beneath called ventral and anal, and pectorals (behind the gills) fro helping maintain the equilibrium; also dorsal fins (on the back), which indicate moods and physical states – health and contentment when erect, illness and depression when lowered. The majority have no defense against enemies except in such teeth as they possess.

Some are so peaceable that a number of species live amicably in one tank; others so quarrelsome that two males cannot occupy the same aquarium, and a male may kill his mate.

Some subsist largely on algae, but most favor small water animals, such as entomostracans (the minutest of crustaceans), annelids, and insect larvae; and the fish fancier may from time to time visit the wild ponds in search of their prey, rearing for them also, in boxes of humus, or leaf mold, the small whit earthworm, Enchytraeus of Europe and America, found from New Jersey to Maine, coastwise and along the shore, under stones and seaweeds; and whenever possible he supplies them with Daphnia, the tiny crustacean on which fancy goldfishes are reared.


But it is obvious that, if the finny tribe did not readily accept substitutes for live food, their maintenance in captivity would be impossible. Raw beef, cereals, roe, and shellfish, also dried shrimp and other desiccated foods, appear on their bill of fare, and many experiments have been made with concentrated foods, such as cod-liver meal and other glandular products, to ascertain their response to vitamin nutritives – experiments which have confirmed their amenability to a foreign diet and especially to substitutes for the lime, minerals, enzymes, and other catalytic agents present in live food, which aid digestion, purify the blood, and keep the skin lustrous.

The majority lay eggs and leave them to their fate, but some carry their eggs in their mouth, taking no food while incubation is in progress, and subsequently caring for their young, which swim back into the mouth at the approach of danger.

Some build nests and vigilantly guard the eggs and fry; others bring forth their young alive.


Nearly always when the fry receive any care it is given by the father, but in mouth breeding species it is usually the mother who gathers up the spawn, and among Cichlids, which include the Brazilian half-moon and Mesonauta, described in the accompanying biographies, both sexes guard the eggs and fry.

In yet another species, the Chanchito, the eggs are hatched in a nest scooped in the sand by the male fish. When able to swim the young rise and school, the mother leading the procession, the father bringing up the rear. The fishlets, allowed to swim only during the day, are stowed back in the nest at night.

In other species in which the male gives exclusive care to his progeny, his labors cease when they are able to fend for themselves. He suddenly apprises them of their independence by darting at them and eating a few, compelling the remainder to rush for cover. After that they know better than to trust any fish bigger than themselves. In aquaria, where they cannot escape, he usually eats them all, unless the mother precedes him to the feast, and the aquarist guards against this by removing either young or parents at the proper time.

Although these habits correspond in general with those of larger fishes, the latter do not breed in captivity, while a pair two inches long, in a two-gallon aquarium stocked with vegetation similar to that of their native habitat, and supplied with water of the correct quality and temperature suffer no nostalgia, and those equipped for breathing air accommodate themselves to smaller aquaria.

The only martyrdom to which the tropicals are subjected is accidental. Some expire from cold. Occasionally an aquarium is left uncovered and the fishes, many species of which leap like salmon, clear the rim with one jump and dry up on the floor; or an aquarist concerned for their comfort may transfer their tank to a radiator and forget until they are completely cooked.


Aquaria for tropical fishes are stocked with aquatic plants similar to those used in goldfish receptacles and may be of many kinds. The large-leaved Cryptocoryne, submerged spatterdock (Color Plates VI and VIII), and broad and narrow -leaved tape grasses (Sagittaria and Vallisneria, Color Plates I, IV, and V) provide the best oxygenation and for smaller aquaria the hair grass (Color Plate II) is much in favor because of its delicate green clumps, low growth, averaging four or five inches, and habit of producing new plants from rhizomes, like tape grasses.

More commonly sold in pet shops are anacharis, fanwort, and water milfoil, all with slight roots that require weighting with stones Anacharis (Elodea), a submerged herb of the frogbit family, (Color Plates I, II, III) is called “north American Waterweed” in Europe, where it was unaccountably introduced and has spread with great rapidity.

Fanwort (Color Plate VII) affords a depositary for adhesive spawn, and the firm ovate leaves and floating bulbs of the water-hyacinth (Eichhornia), as illustrated in the same plate, provide superior anchorage, for bubble nests, its feather roots furnishing excellent hiding and foraging jungles for fry and spawning grounds for fishes that cast their eggs among vegetation. Indoors, however the plant deteriorates, never choking an aquarium with the extensive growth with which it impedes navigation in Florida rivers.

Snails, familiar scavengers of the goldfish aquarium, figure also in the home of the toy tropical and have interesting habits. Pond snails with pointed spirals (Color Plates II and VI) and divers kinds of ramshorns, including the showy European red ramshorn (Color Plate IV), lay eggs in gelatinous masses which are devoured by the fishes. Snails in return eat the fishes eggs; and it is customary to remove them during the spawning season.

The Japanese viviparous snail (Plate VIII) brings forth living young with opercula, behind which they can retreat, and shells too tough for little fishes to manipulate.

For reasons biological, psychological, and social, the lure of the fish in the aquarium for many individuals is far greater that the lure of the fish on the line. This applies particularly to the pygmy fish, a hundred or more of the smaller species of which will live comfortably in quarters not commodious enough for a dozen goldfishes. When various kinds are placed in a sufficiently capacious receptacle, each species schools, thus massing and accentuating the colors.


Many facts of biological importance are to be discovered from a study of the toy fish. Abnormalities of shape and color – in other words “biological sports” – have not yet been taken advantage of, as in the rearing of goldfishes, to propagate new strains, though variation under domestication has given rise to many new varieties.

Thus far, experiments of breeders have been confined largely to hybridization, more with the expectation of producing an oddity, salable or otherwise, than of proving or disproving any principle of Mendelian inheritance, cross-breeding having been done with allied species of fighting fishes and Danios and related genera of top minnows (swordtails, moons, and guppies).

These non-scientific but interesting experiments seem to show that whether the male or female of a species is selected has a significant bearing on the character of the progeny, their color and “finnage” (a word coined by breeders). The expected sterility in the offspring does not occur or is confined to the male, and hybrids, especially among the top minnows, tend to be several times larger than either parent.

The great possibilities for the study of embryology, the development of new and desirable variations by careful cultivation, the extent to which the distribution of color and fin development are dependent upon agencies of temperature, environment, age, food, and other factors, and other biological features of the toy fish, commend themselves to the attention of the scientist, and in many a biological laboratory a collection of pygmies forms an important part of the equipment.

Lepidology, the study of the scales, in which the age of a fish is recorded, has not yet been applied to the pygmies to discover their natural term of life.


As among larger fishes, the young hatched from eggs are transparent, very delicate, and unable to feed, the umbilical sac (yolk sac) supplying nutriment for a few days and also retarding their movements. These require rich foods – love infusoria, diatoms, Daphnia; also the juices of meat and shellfish.

But pygmies born alive are as fully formed as adults, except in point of size and the development of the reproductive system. They are able to swim and feed immediately, and resemble nothing save two large eyes attached to an infinitesimal streak of animated protoplasm that can dart 25 times its own length in the minutest fraction of a second. These hardier youngsters, for whom nature makes no postnatal provision, thrive on prepared baby-fish foods, desiccated egg yolk, cracker dust, and oatmeal broth.

Males are generally smaller and more highly colored. Interbreeding has the same deteriorating effect as upon higher animals, and exchanges of breeding stock are made from time to time and new blood introduced through importations. Runts and giants occur in every batch, the former commonly disappearing down the gullets of the latter, though as careful selection is practiced by fanciers as in the cultivation of goldfishes and valuable plants. As yet, no purely albinistic stocks have appeared.

The psychology of the fish has been barely touched upon, and almost any careful observer may have the privilege of contributing new knowledge, for every fish is a law unto itself. Pygmies sometimes exhibit a discriminating sense of taste and an astonishing adaptability to change of environment, food, and temperature, and, when young, to the quality of the water they live in. Some are excitable; others phlegmatic; many active and playful. Some refuse to fight; others are incorrigible bullies. They learn most quickly where food is concerned and what time of day it may be expected. Some grow so tame they will swim into the hand; others never make human friends.

Exemplifying the dim dawn of vertebrate sensibilities, they display individual preferences and fierce jealousies; solicitude for their offspring or, in some cases, greater solicitude for the preservation of their own lives; some are curious and observing, showing an interest in form and color, being able to distinguish between the shadows of friends and enemies and between the two ends of the spectrum – that is, between red, orange, or yellow, as opposed to green, blue, or violet.

The young fish able to swim concerns itself very early with a recognition of its own species, and schooling has been observed among the fry of viviparous fishes less than a day old.


Exportations of toy fishes from Germany into the United States began about 25 years ago, numerous species having been first successfully bred in that country from parent stock captured in its tropical haunts. Though many thousands now are propagated elsewhere, a large percentage of those owned in the United States being “home grown,”considerable numbers, of a value variously estimated at from $50,000 to $100,000 per annum, still are shipped from Germany and South America.

The typical German traveling can is of tin, with a capacity of about four gallons, heavily insulated with felt wadding and paper and with an opening in the cover to admit air. Thousands of specimens have traveled safely across the ocean and into the interior of the United States in these cans, most of the shipping being done between May and October. For conveying by hand or shipping specimens shorter distances, one gallon thermos jugs are used.

Mechanics, chemistry, carpentry and aquatic biology all come into play in the keeping of the toy fish, and devices for its special care are numerous. In North America the temperature of the living room is adequate for the survival of some species, and they reproduce during the summer months; but the majority require water heated from 75 to 80 degrees Fahrenheit, and this is usually accomplished (in the suburban or country home) either by establishing the aquaria in a conservatory or specially heated room, or (in the city) by heating the tanks individually with alcohol or oil lamps, gas or Bunsen burners, incandescent lamps suspended in the water or electric heaters with thermostats for automatically regulating the temperature ( graphic on page 288 to be inserted).

Mechanical aerators for cloudy days, when plants fail to supply sufficient oxygen, are also in use, operated by water power or electric current and releasing oxygen in streams of minute bubbles finer that the spray from a watering can.

Among species that lay non-adhesive eggs and devour them, the female is placed in a breeding cage suspended in the aquarium. These cages are constructed of sloping wooden trays with small apertures through which the eggs may fall, or of glass, one popular type being made of glass rods narrowly spaced. With such a contrivance, the eggs come to rest at the bottom of the tank, the female can be removed to another aquarium after spawning, and in a few days the fry may be seen swimming about, secure from cannibalism.


More or less importance is attached to the quality of the water in which the toy fish is to live, Brazilian river fishes, like lake-dwelling species, requiring it less alkaline than those that live in or enter brackish water. With the help of chemical water testers similar to soil testers, acid sodium phosphate is used to produce the desired acidity, and plaster of Paris, calcium phosphate, or bicarbonate of so mixed with salt to create the desired alkalinity.

Europe boasts permanent and notable exhibits of toy fishes in a half a dozen of its public aquariums – those of London, Amsterdam, Antwerp, Berlin, Frankfort, and Leipzig. The United States lays claim to two. That of the Lincoln Park Aquarium, in Chicago, consists of 58 tanks, showing many brilliant species from the Orient and South America. That of the Steinhart Aquarium in San Francisco, consists of 31 tanks of similar species and, in addition, many brought from Samoa and Hawaii, which display the vivid colors and fantastic shapes that characterize the fishes of those waters.

When finished, the new John G. Shedd Aquarium, in Chicago, will display 65 balanced aquaria in a tropical-fish room maintained at a temperature of 80 degrees Fahrenheit, stressing beautiful setting and plant life rather than the rarity of the collection .

Besides these permanent exhibits, various societies of aquarists interested in both goldfish and tropical toy-fish culture hold annual exhibitions at which hundreds of aquaria are shown (the public usually admitted free), and prizes, including ribbons and silver cups, are awarded to both professionals and novices.

These societies exist for the purpose of stimulating both expert and amateur to greater interest by the exchange of ideas and specimens, some publishing instructive leaflets dealing with fishes, plants, successful experiments in rearing difficult species or breeding new varieties, and similar subjects. In the United States 25 such societies exist in Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Maryland, Illinois, Missouri, Wisconsin, Washington, California, and the District of Columbia. The largest are in Newark, Jersey City, and Philadelphia.

The Newark Aquarium Society, having a membership of 500, at a recent exhibit visited by 50,000 people, displayed 1000 aquaria, with 160 classified varieties of tropical toy fishes ( graphic from page 305 in original to be included).

Many members of these societies, besides maintaining special rooms or conservatories for their collections, have private daphnia breeding reservoirs, hatcheries, outdoor pools, and other equipment, and it is not uncommon for one person to own 12 to 30 aquaria.

In the vicinity of such organizations are lodged numerous dealers in toy fishes, some with large conservatories and ponds for summer rearing.

The breeding of pygmy fishes for sale is an industry of steadily increasing importance in both hemispheres. Aquarium keeping is a pursuit (called by its followers a “hobby”) calculated to subvert any designs Satan may have upon idle hands, and to draw its devotees closer to the heart of the world of water life, so different from our own, yet urged and governed by such similar impulses – a pursuit in which familiarity breeds no contempt. Little fishes and the gods still are mentioned in the same breath.

Like dogs, some species are never absent, and others have their day of glory and almost disappear, with two or three always in the ascendancy. These are mentioned more particularly in the accompanying descriptions.


Mohammed’s dream of heaven was of a place through which flowed limpid rivers and lakes cool as camphor; and the clown in Urvashi says, “heaven is just a place where they never shut their eyes – like fishes!” The fish fanciers dream of Paradise is of a place overflowing with warm placid lakes that part like the Red Sea, allowing him to walk between natural aquaria and to view on a level with his eye, which he never shuts, millions of angelic counterparts of the pygmy fishes he so loved on earth.

In the brief delineations of the species presented in Mr. Hashime Murayama’s strikingly lifelike color portraits, the subjects are grouped according to their breeding habits: oviparous species of many families, which include a few that care for their eggs and young, and the labyrinth fishes, which blow nests of bubbles; and viviparous fishes of the family of top minnows.

Note: The original illustrations to this article will be posted at a later date!

Aquaculture In The Inner City

Witch’s Brew! Aquaculture In The Inner City

Water-Filled Garbage Can With Paradise Fish Bubble Nest At The Top Left

The images in the article are the property of PETCRAFT.

Though I’ve kept tropical fish for over thirty-five years, it’s only over the last few summers that I’ve attempted to keep fish outdoors. Living in an industrial area of Jersey City, almost underneath the New Jersey Turnpike, it’s not very easy to establish a pond.

My first attempt was, believe it or not, with an old boat. It was about eighteen feet long . Originally, or so I thought, somebody was going to pay me to store it in the lot. After many months without seeing the good ship’s owner, I tried to get somebody to take it away. I was told that the boat was not exactly seaworthy — in fact it was garbage. I was going to have to pay to have it removed!

I decided to try to make the best of a bad situation. My reasoning went that if a boat would keep water out, then it would also hold water. To the great amusement of the local motorcycle club, I paid a homeless man to dig a hole. After about a week, the excavation was far enough advanced so that several people were able to drag the boat over to the deep ditch. We kicked it in and it settled — almost level. With the help of a fire hydrant, several hours later I had a pond.

I seeded my private lake with some bird droppings from my pigeon coop. With the bright sun, the water quickly took on a bright green tint.

I introduced ten “feeder” goldfish. They seemed very happy frolicking in the soupy water.

A few days later the boat seemed to be groaning, like a tall ship tossing in a heavy sea. The little ship cracked right down the middle! Before an hour was out, my ten fish were confined to about a gallon of water. Unfortunately, a boat is not very good at containing water.

The next year I tried a plastic toddler’s pool. When I noticed a heavy batch of mosquito larvae, I put in a pair of guppies. Some weeks later I looked to see how the guppies were doing. Since the mosquito larvae were gone, I first assumed that the fish must be fat and sassy. Alas, the fish too were missing. A number of very nimble dragon fly larvae had taken their place, in the manner of The Alien.

The summer after that I put out two plastic garbage cans, each holding fifty gallons or so. I put four “feeder” goldfish in the one and one in the other. I meant to divide the fish three/two into the two drums, but the fourth fish decided to jump in with the first three. Over the winter, the containers seemed to freeze solid. But, lo and behold, come spring, the fish were doing fine.

I decided that it was not right for the one guy to be all by itself. I put him in with the others.

A few weeks later I saw that the now fishless drum was teeming with mosquito larvae. Not wanting to be accused of maintaining a hazard to human health, I placed two Paradise fish in the barrel. I never saw the fish again, but the mosquito larvae did disappear.

Paradise Fish Bubble Nest

Late in August I noticed a mass of bubble on the surface of the water. I wondered if it could be a bubble nest of the Paradise fish? Since the fish seemed to be gone, I thought that maybe a rat had fallen into the water, had drowned and was now giving off bubbles through decomposition. But it turned out that the fish had found life in Jersey City agreeable. By the middle of September, Paradise fish fry were hunting along the surface of the water-filled garbage can.

It IS Possible To Do A Good Job!
A Very Nice Water Garden Just Across The Street From City Hall in Jersey City
These two photos are by Alton O’neill



The country of Malawi is located in eastern Africa, bordered on the West and the South by the country of Mozambique. Malawi possesses neither oil nor a strategic location. This has proved to be a boon, for no arrogant conqueror threatens this peaceful land. Though extremely poor (and now beset by the scourge of AIDS) the people of Malawi are noted for their courteous and out-going natures. The highest honor in this land is not some token of military victory, but, rather, a scholarship to the school set up by President Banda. Here students study the Greek and Latin classics, as did the British gentry during the reign of Queen Victoria.

On the East, Malawi is bordered by Lake Malawi, one of the world’s great lakes. This lake stretches for 600 kilometers, longer than America’s Lake Michigan. Lake Malawi is one of Africa’s Rift lakes, as is Lake Victoria and Lake Tanganyika. Africa, over the course of millions of years, is being torn apart by geologic forces — the Rift lakes are `the dotted line’ along which the continent is being ripped in two. These Rift lakes are often described as inland seas, due in part to their magnitude and also because the water is very hard and salty. Hard water contains a great quantity of minerals.

Though Malawi has no rare minerals or weapons to force itself upon the world, it does have treasure in abundance, living treasure, the beautiful cichlid fish of Lake Malawi. One can travel to Africa to spot these jewels (actually Malawi is becoming something of a trendy tourist spot), but that is not necessary. You only have to go to your local aquarium store, for these cichlids are extremely popular right here in the States.

Some things must be kept in mind in order to experience success with these fish. Most of the Lake Malawi fish are `mbuna.’ This means that they come from extremely rocky habitats. In the wild each male establishes a home base that is defended against all trespassers. Females are courted as potential mates. If they decline the male’s advances, they too are chased off.

The aquarist must provide an abundance of rocks for these mbuna to feel at home. It is best to understock the tank – use as large a tank as possible. If crowded, the Malawi cichlids will constantly fight with each other; the stress will kill all but the strongest. I like to keep mine in tanks 50 gallons or larger, one species to a tanks. I initially put 8 to 12 small fish, 2 inches say, in the tank. As the fish mature, I take out all but one or two of the males, leaving in all the females. In some species the males are differently colored than the females. The males often have many light colored spots on the anal fin — the egg-spots — while the females only have a few. The males are generally more brightly colored. The males will defend the tank as his territory and court the females.

Most Malawi cichlids are relatively easy to breed. These fish are mouthbrooders; after the male fertilizes the eggs, the female takes them in her mouth and holds them for the sake of safety. In your group of fish, if you don’t witness the spawning, the mothers will be recognized when they stop eating. The best bet is to carefully remove an egg-laden female and to place her in a tank by herself. Since she is not eating, her strength will be reduced. The other fish may subject her to evil treatment. They might also eat the babies when they are released.

When the female does release the babies, again put her in another tank by herself. She may eat her own young; at any rate she does not feed or care for them. The mother will be too weak to go right back in with the male and other females. They would quickly kill her!

The young are very easy to care for. A week or two of newly hatched brine shrimp is a good idea, but not all-important. Also feed them the same food, flake, pellet or frozen, that you feed the parents. It may be necessary to grind the food in your fingers, or to allow it to soak, for the fry to be able to swallow the food. Don’t skimp on the food, feed as many times a day as possible. Don’t skimp on the filtration either. For starters you will need an undergravel or sponge filter to remove ammonia. Carefully perform as many partial water changes as you can. When the youngster get to be about an inch, you will want to install a canister or outside power filter to handle the increasing waste load. Be careful to not initially use too powerful a filter. You don’t want to throw the babies out with the dirty water!

Water quality is very important for the adults, also. Scientifically researched water additives are now available for the Lake Malawi cichlids. You want hard, alkaline, salty water to keep malawi fish happy. Be sure to also use a conditioner to remove chlorine and chloramine. You will want a powerful canister or outside power filter to remove particulate waste. The mbuna are great for moving the gravel about. This stirs up a lot of detritus, which is definitely unsightly and also seems to make the fish uncomfortable. In most situations, an undergravel filter does a good job of controlling ammonia. A large set-up might require a wet/dry filter for sufficient biological filtration.

Crushed coral makes a good gravel for these fish. It is just the right size for them to move around. The crushed coral will also slowly dissolve and help provide minerals for the water.

No matter what sort of filter combination you decide upon, do perform frequent partial water changes. Remember to keep using the special additives that Lake Malawi cichlids require.

Though not as important as with salt water reef tank, a tank of Lake Malawi fish should be brightly lit. You want the best lighting possible in order to enjoy the awesome colors of these fish. Light is important for another reason. Many of the mbuna are basically vegetarians. It is a good idea to allow as much algae to grow as possible. This provides a healthful snack for your crew!

Many good vegetable foods, some designed just for Lake Malawi cichlids, are on the market. My guys seem to prefer the ones that contain spirulina. You can also treat with a little cooked spinach — without the butter! Malawi cichlids are not fussy. They ravenously devour just about anything.

Most of the Malawi mbuna that you see in your local store will have been raised in captivity, for, as mentioned, these fish are not shy about reproduction. Some will have been imported directly from Africa. It is believed that wild-caught fish are even more brilliantly colored than those raised in tanks.


Discus Study Group
Visit the Discus Study Group Facebook Page for the most authoritative information on the king of aquarium fish.


Editor’s note: The interview took place in the early-’90s. The article originally appeared in Freshwater and Marine Aquarium.
Marc Weiss no longer uses beef heart for fish food and now suggests a seafood based diet. This formulation will be available soon.

Imagine, you are surrounded by great schools of discus, thousands of discus, bright, ruby red discus with brilliant, electric blue markings. The fish swim in self-confident schools. They hover in front of you, intelligently looking right into your eyes. This could be the vivid dream of any discus-lover, but it is reality at Marc Weiss’s fish room – the source for a healthy percentage of the discus brought to the U.S.

Marc Weiss has been involved with all sorts of animals for most of his forty -five years. Fish and herps have always been his favorites. After college, he decided to `grow up’ and go to work in his father’s advertising business. The fish-bug stayed with him. As a hobby, he started to keep, and then to breed, the aquarium royalty, the discus. Soon, Mark was producing several thousand discus every month in his New York City apartment. This evolved from a past -time to a full time occupation.

Eventually a problem developed – the sort of problem that all businessmen should have! Even though his tanks were bursting with discus fry, Marc Weiss just could not raise enough to keep his customers happy. On the other side of the globe Hong Kong fish-farmer Lo Wing Yat was also experiencing `problems.’ This huge facility was producing more superb discus than he could sell. Marc and Lo Wing Yat, known also as Sonny, had been friends for several years. One day Sonny mentioned to Mark how many fish were in inventory. An extremely lucrative partnership was instantly born. Marc Weiss now sells a host of the world’s best strains, bred by Lo Wing Yat.

Marc insists that discus don’t have to be difficult fish to breed. To support his claim he points to the fact that discus are not a rare fish in nature. He also contends that the Asians have no trouble producing the discus in quantity. The reason why they can do this, while so many Americans experience frustration, is that the oriental fish-culturists don’t fight nature – they instead let nature work for them.

Discus come from warm, soft, highly-acidic waters that are very low in dissolved carbon dioxide and ammonia. Discus are carnivorous. Provide these conditions and you too can make big money raising discus! Marc is happy to help the beginner. He has no need to fear competition; discus are in great demand. His customers keep the two phones in his office ringing night and day.

Marc insists that the very first thing to do is to test your water. Your local tap-water just might be perfect for discus. If this is your lucky situation, all you would need to do to satisfy the fish’s water needs would be frequent water changes with heated and dechlorinated tap-water. Since most water authorities are now buffering their water to prevent lead contamination, you most likely will need to `work’ your water to keep the discus happy. Marc treats the city water in two ways. A reverse osmosis unit removes the overwhelming majority of minerals and contaminants. The water is further conditioned with granulated peat moss, in order to lower the ph and also to soften the water as much as possible. A good wet/dry filter will do the job of removing ammonia and co2.

When kept in the proper water, discus are not shy. Marc’s fish quickly swim right up to the front of the tank to look over visitors. He also believes that poor water quality is also the reason behind many breeding failures. It is Marc’s belief that improper water does not allow the parent fish and fry to chemically communicate. Another problem all due to a failure to communicate!


Discus in nature consume small shrimps and insect larvae. Similar foods are available in frozen form at every pet shop. To make sure that these foods don’t contain any parasites, Mark Weiss advises the hobbyist to scald the frozen food in hot water for ten seconds. It is a good idea to fortify the food with vitamins. Beef heart and raw shrimp, the sort for human consumption, are another two good foods. When chopped up by a food processor they attain the consistency of peanut butter and don’t fall right apart in the water.

What we want to copy from the natural environment is the total set of factors that lead up to discus achieving maturity and reproduction. Those incidental elements of the Amazon that don’t help discus must be ignored. Marc Weiss says, “That when discus are starving during the dry season, they eat flower petals is of no interest to the discus breeder. You might find piranhas in the same stream. Would anyone suggest putting piranhas in a discus breeding tank?”

Marc Weiss vehemently states that most discus are not killed by disease but rather by poor care. A pathologist might be able to identify a large number of parasites and micro-organisms on a healthy, breeding pair of discus. With good water and good food, the fish possess the vigor to ward off any ills. Allow the water quality to deteriorate and/or feed the fish a diet that fails to nourish, the discus will then succumb.

Success or failure is not defined by one or two pairs of discus. If you have given your fish the best care possible and they still fail to reproduce, perhaps you just need different pair. Look at human society. Some people are infertile. Some humans, even from the best homes, abuse their children. On the other hand, beware of the experts, so-called, who have only one or two pairs. Again taking people as the example, look at the starving in Africa that manage to have children. Just because of this, would you advise starvation and pestilence for all people? Of course not! Some discus will manage to breed under any circumstances. These determined fish did not breed because of ill-suited water conditions, but despite bad water. Why make things hard for yourself and your fish?

For the beginner, the best fish might not be the most expensive. Attractive strains that are reasonably priced are often also prolific. These fish are the best to start with, for if they don’t breed you know that it is your own care that is at fault. The very expensive strains might be delicate or just difficult to get to lay eggs. The novice could be doing everything right and still not get these finned Tiffanys to produce offspring!


As always, the best place to buy fish is from your local store. Here you can see exactly what you are paying for. Maybe the discus strains that you need can’t be found locally. Maybe the stores in your area don’t sell discus at all. In this case it makes good sense to order through the mail. Marc Weiss suggests that the buyer should always find out what the `fine print’ of any guarantee is. Nearly all vendors promise live delivery, but Mark believes that this should entail immediate replacement of any DOAs, not just a promised credit against future orders.

It is also important to tell your supplier whether the fish are intended as breeders or for display. Female discus are often not as brightly colored as the males. If you state your desires, your supplier can try to fulfill them.

As I was leaving Marc Weiss told me, “you can’t quote me on how to keep and breed discus. I can’t tell you how to do it. God and Nature are the only ones that can tell you how to raise discus!”


Dogs for Protection

Mastiff dog male
The giant breeds certainly intimidate through sheer bulk, but German Shepherds and German Shepherd mixes really make the best guard and attack dogs.

Before using a dog to protect you, your family, and your property, legal realities need to be considered. Many municipalities in the United States have enacted “vicious dog” laws. These seem to be, for the most part, anti-ethnic youth laws. As with many so-called “quality of life” statutes, enforcement is generally sporadic, arbitrary, or based on complaint. In any case, read your local codes. It will be senseless to spend time training a dog, only for it to be impounded and possibly destroyed. The safest course is to not make a nuisance of yourself. If the dog torments your neighbors with barking, property damage, and attacks on their pets and children, expect them to retaliate, legally or by other means. If the same people perceive your pet as a valuable source of protection for themselves, as well as for you, good will will be engendered.

In some locales, the law prohibits the possession, training, or use of a dog to inflict bodily harm. If this is your situation, you might wind up in the same prison cell as the burglar that was bitten by your dog! Most likely, even in these precincts dogs still can be used as alarms to warn of the approach of intruders.

Force applied through a dog raises the same issues as the application of force through weapons or your fists. Were you reasonable in a perception of an immediate threat to your physical safety or that of others? Could you have summoned the police? Would an alarm or warning have sent the malefactor running?

I am not an attorney and am definitely not aware of every law and every court case for every community as applies to guard dogs. Consult a local lawyer before proceeding with the training of a guard dog.

It has been said, “I’d rather be in the hands of twelve jurors than six pallbearers!”

Another issue must be faced before initiating protection training. A dog that is haphazardly trained to SIT or COME is better than one with no training at all. The same is not true for aggression conditioning. Your dog has probably been taught from birth not to bite and not to growl. You are now about to modify or remove those inhibitions. Is the dog in a home environment? Does the dog interact with strangers? If either of these factors are true, then you must be completely certain of the dog’s disposition and that you have control over the animal. The dog must instantaneously respond to “NO”, “SIT”, “DOWN”, “STAY”, and “COME”. The idea is for the dog to protect you and your family from harm, not for him to inflict it on you! I have seen two lackadaisically trained dogs that had to be destroyed. Both attacked a series of innocent people , working up to mauling their owners.

There is a difference between a guard dog and an attack dog, though, quite possibly, a single dog can serve in both capacities. A guard dog patrols what he considers as home turf. Canine aggression is here clearly an extension of territorial instincts. The guard dog generally is expected to work on his own, without the owner or trainer being present giving commands. An attack dog works under the orders of his human superior. This sort of dog is expected to perform anywhere under any circumstances. Upon command an attack dog will threaten or attempt to stop anybody. The person will very likely be posing no threat to the dog. Here we are dealing more with the canine hunting patterns. A guard dog is very much a reflection of a human police officer, for we expect judgement and discretion of both. An attack dog is very much a weapon, just like a gun. We don’t want an attack dog to think, just to function smoothly. Here all thought, and responsibility, rests with the operator.

Because of the ever present likelihood of unnecessary injury, up to mutilation and death to the malefactor, it is extremely important that an attack dog be trained to cease hostilities immediately upon command. For the dog to stop biting when the criminal stops struggling (which is natural, for the predator-prey relationship fades when the person stops trying to escape) is not good enough. Many people, when caught by a dog, will continue to struggle even when they have been pulled to the ground. If the dog won’t stop the assault when told to do so, the person can very likely be killed by the dog.

German Shepherd dog
Rocco has stopped a number of criminals.

When using an attack dog, the trainer must be ready to escalate violence to whatever level the situation demands. You must be sure that the dog can meet this challenge, or you can be seriously injured or killed. Don’t expect common sense from criminals! Between alcohol, drugs, exposure to the elements, mental illness, or some other source of impaired judgement, the perpetrators of street crime can respond to an attack quickly and unpredictably.

My shop was located in an industrial wasteland of Jersey City. Early one Sunday morning I heard a woman screaming. I grabbed a three foot length of steel pipe and leashed up my best trained dog. I soon found that a man had pinned the screaming woman to the ground and was attempting to rape her. I yelled as loudly as possible, “What the hell is going on here!” He weighed about fifty pounds less than me. I expected him to jump up and run away. He told me to “mind your own business.” I ordered the dog to bite him. The dog obeyed. The would-be rapist got up from the ground and tried to get at a knife. Again, I let the dog attack. Only now did the offender flee. When he got about one hundred feet away, he stopped and started to throw stones at me! If the dog had not been dependable, the woman would have been raped and I would have been stabbed.

The gender of the dog makes no difference in protection training. As always, unless the dog is a show winner, or unless you’ve got some realistic expectation for it to produce outstanding offspring, neuter the dog. A neutered pet is a much more dependable worker. The operation will in no way lessen the dog’s ability as either a guard or an attack dog. My most dependable attack dog is an altered male. My most ferocious dog (one that will not halt the prosecution of an attack) is a spayed female. A neutered dog is much easier to train and will not be distracted as much by natural urges.

The most important point is the dogs natural temperament. The Army enlists all sorts of people. They are all trained as soldiers but some function as clerks, others as chaplains, and yet others as commandos. Physical prowess is important, but the native disposition is the greatest distinction. The same goes when considering a dog for what amounts to either MP or commando duty. You can start off with an adult dog. This way you can reliably measure the dog’s psychology. Any medium to medium-large dog will serve well. Breed is basically unimportant, though German Shepherd mixes have a slight edge. The ill-intentioned humans are immediately afraid of the German Shepherd type.

This pit bull attacks only when HE thinks the situation calls for it!

Pit Bulls are good as deterrents but don’t really make the grade as watch dogs. I’ve got two of them. Neither will attack on command. The one growls and dances like some sort of demon, but does not bite. The other is my personal buddy. He’s very smart and does not take orders! He will attack somebody that he perceives as being a threat to me. This can be somebody trying to hand me a flyer. A dog that does not think, but simply obeys is a much better bet for security.

White pit bull
Originally called “Coca,” I re-named her Cookie. Attacks cats, dogs, and her food bowl, but not people!

The giant breeds might scare by shear bulk, but a medium sized mixed breed will do a better job. I raise Mastiffs and love them. They will protect their homes, but I keep them primarily for their looks and personalities.

You don’t want a security dog to fight with other dogs. It just diverts attention from their true duty.

The local animal shelter is a great place to obtain a dog for any purpose. A dog that runs up to the fence and barks, holding its ground is a good prospect. A dog that barks feverishly and backs off is a fear biter and is not a good choice. A healthy dog that hits it off with you will probably work out.

My killer was found sleeping under a bush in the parking lot of the shop.. She seemed meek, very upset and lost. I assumed that she had been abandoned. I leashed her and fed her. My intention was to take the dog to the shelter later on that day. As people arrived for work, they had the daylight scared out of them as she leaped howling for their throats! I don’t know if she was a trained guard dog that some clown just let loose, or if she just took to being treated kindly.

A dog protects you because it healthy and because it loves and respects you. Don’t listen to the idiots that suggest beating a dog to make it vicious. Mistreatment can produce a canine psychotic, but these poor souls are of no use for protection. They are as likely to attack their owners as they are to attack an intruder. I’ve seen a dog that I assumed was beaten with a chain. He would be playing with you like a little pup. Somebody would walk by with keys. Hearing the metallic jingle, the dog’s eyes would cloud over and then he would bite anybody within range.

Machiavelli wrote that the fiercest soldiers are those that feel that they have a real stake in society and love their leaders. The beaten and downtrodden don’t care if they live or die. Changing one oppressor for another does not bother them. So it is with dogs!

Some teenagers were walking by my fence. I had my dog out in the yard. He ran and threw himself at the fence. After the kids recovered from fright, they asked if I could train their dog. It seems that they had a year old Rotterweiler that was very shy. I asked what they had been doing to train him. “When ever somebody comes over, we slap him around”, was the answer. Why would the dog want to protect these two morons?!

Feeding a dog gunpowder to instill aggression is in the same class as voodoo dolls and other nonsense.

Dove Diet

Young orange pearl ringneck doveI just raised a few doves this year. This orange pearl is the one with the most interesting color.

The most commonly kept doves, the ringnecks, diamond, cape and Australian crested are extremely easy to feed. A menu of seeds suits these birds. The two larger species — the ringneck and the Australian crested — can be kept on a diet of fancy pigeon seed mix with popcorn. You must insist on the popcorn, for the regular poultry corn is too large for the delicate doves. This mix will consist of the following seeds: milo, millet, wheat, peas, and popcorn.

Those keeping just a few ringneck doves will find it more convenient to use wild bird seed instead. The doves won’t eat the sunflowers, but those seeds and anything else that remains in the dish can be given to the outdoor birds.

Ringneck doves enjoy canned or (defrosted) frozen peas or corn intended for human consumption. Ringnecks are very fond of cooked lentils, whole, and cooked and then grated chickpeas and lima beans.

Whole wheat bread ground in a blender or a food processor is very good. For variety, a little peanut butter might be spread on the bread before grating. You also can grind peanuts, cashews, Brazil nuts, almonds, or walnuts with the bread and/or a small amount of nearly any fruit or vegetable that you eat yourself. (Don’t use avocados.) I often give my doves grated cooked sweet potato, regular potato, or canned or cooked fresh beet.

Tofu, tempeh or soy yogurt are healthy supplements to be mixed with the ground whole wheat bread. These foods are high in protein. The tempeh and soy yogurt contain Lactobacillus that is useful in maintaining a healthy microbiome and helping to prevent gastrointestinal disease.

Doves have a beak that functions as a forceps for picking up small items. These birds often will not peck at a mash. For these reasons, the whole wheat bread and anything added to it must be finely ground. Only small amounts of moist items can be added, as too much will turn the consistency of the bread crumbs from mealy to mushy. First toasting the whole wheat bread helps in keeping it granular when adding ingredients with a high water or oil content.

Ringneck doves are particularly fond of the separated pips of pomegranates and very small blueberries. From time to time, I’ll grate raisins, dried figs or dates and the mix it with the whole wheat bread meal. The doves enjoy sweet dried fruit, but I feed it just as a treat.

Ringnecks will eat cooked brown rice, though it’s not a favorite. Adding a little pancake syrup to the rice is a good idea. A small amount of olive oil and a dash of salt can be mixed with the rice instead of the syrup. The olive oil and salt also goes well with the corn and peas.

Fresh foods can spoil and should be prepared each day. Only give the doves as much as they will eat in an hour or so, especially in warm weather. Remove and discard any uneaten portion.

Ringneck Doves are particularly fond of hemp seed. High in protein, this is a great addition to the diet when the birds are laying eggs and feeding young, or molting. Due to the oil content, hemp seed helps to boost the calories if the environment is cool.

The Cape and the Diamond doves are two miniature bird species. They heartily enjoy a vitamin, mineral, and protein enriched parakeet (Budgie) seed mix. A high quality, fortified, finch mix can be offered instead of the keet mix. Both will be made up of mixed millets, canary seed, and oat groats. The difference is in the varying percentages of ingredients — for the parakeet mix, larger seeds will predominate. If you are keeping your toy doves with smaller finches, Australian finches or waxbills, for example, for the sake of convenience, feed them all the same mix. If the doves are being housed with larger, more robust finches, like Java Rice Birds, Whydahs, or Weavers, all in the aviary will enjoy the variety of the two seed mixes. As a supplement, pellets for finches and parakeets can also be used. Greens, fruits, high-protein nestling foods, and live foods can be offered to the above species. Sometimes, the birds will ignore everything but seed. These species will thrive and rear their young on plain seed diets.

All seed eating birds require grit to help digest their food and to provide minerals. This is particularly true of the seed-eating doves, for these birds swallow all grains whole. They don’t hull the seed, remove the outer, indigestible part, as do most cage birds. The seeds go to the bird’s crop, or gizzard. There in the crop, with the help of the sand and gravel in the grit, the seeds are ground into a digestible mash. Grit also contains calcium and trace minerals, to ensure that the diet is balanced.

The basic diet of the majority of wild doves is the fancy pigeon mix. The fruit pigeons are an important exception. As the name suggests, these birds require a soft bill diet.